CBD Oil and the Effects on the Brain

As we get older we learn more about what our bodies need and how to heal our aching bones. Now many are turning to Cannabidoil, or CBD. It’s becoming so popular The New York Times even called it a “magical elixir, a cure-all now available in bath bombs, dog treats, and even pharmaceuticals.” And for those who have never tried and want to learn more, you’re not alone!

What is CBD oil?

There are many questions about CBD oil: What is CBD? What is THC? Is it legal? Is it the same as marijuana?

molecular structure of CBD

In a recent interview with Dr. Russell Zwanka, a Siena College Food Marketing Researcher and a published author on CBD oil, he broke down exactly what CBD is and what you need to know. According to Dr. Zwanka, inside the cannabis plant is more than a hundred of what are called “cannabinoids.” CBD is a one of the cannabinoids inside the plant with less than 0.3 percent THC. THC, or tetrahydrocannabinol, is another cannabinoid inside the cannabis plant.

Both CBD and THC have effects on the body and especially the brain receptors associated with thinking, memory, pleasure, coordination, and time perception, but in very different ways. THC is a psychoactive substance and causes the “high” feeling whereas CBD is not a psychoactive cannabinoid.

What are the effects of CBD oil on your brain?

CBD has been known to provide relief for ailments such as inflammation, arthritis, help with sleep, bone growth, bone disease, seizures, anxiety, and certain types of cancer. With millions of these claims, it begs the question, what is it doing to our brains and our bodies?

According to Leafly, when a substance reaches the brain after hitting the bloodstream, it will “influence brain activity by interacting with receptors and neurons.”

Neaurons Comminicating with Neurotransmitters

When it reacts with a receptor such as dopamine, it can help the body produce more cannabinoids and regulate behavior and cognition. One of the main reasons CBD has gained notoriety is its ability to target the serotonin receptors, which can help with disorders involving pain, depression, anxiety, nausea, vomiting, schizophrenia, and more.

Dr. Zwanka says your body already naturally produces cannabinoids, but taking CBD can help to restore the body and brain to maintain “normalcy.”

On top of that, when CBD reacts with opioid receptors, it can immensely reduce drug cravings or withdraw symptoms, which can be an organic way to heal your body rather than prescribing opioids. But the question comes into play of whether or not this is approved by the FDA and “legal.” That answer depends on what form the CBD oil comes in.

What form does CBD oil come in?

CBD oil comes in a number of forms from tinctures to salve, capsules, gummies and vaping. When using a tincture, you put it under the tongue and avoid the digestive system so it’s a quick reaction, going straight into the bloodstream. Meanwhile CVS and Walgreens will offer a salve over the counter.

The form with the most controversy is CBD oil vaping. Dr. Zwanka says while there may be a stigma on pulling from a pen, the smoke form has an almost immediate effect that lasts longer. It’s one of the most controlled ways to take CBD oil.

Is CBD oil legal?

The answer is yes and no. Different forms of CBD oil are different in legality.

If it’s hemp derived, Dr. Zwanka says it is a federally legal product as long as it has 0.3. That remains true unless the state wants to enforce its own rules. Anything derived from the marijuana plant and has more than 0.3 THC, then has to follow the state CBD regulations.

According to the Federal Drug Administration, companies cannot claim CBD oil as a treatment for many ailments people say they use it for, but you can say it has shown “relief” for or helps with symptoms from these ailments. The FDA has not allowed sales of CBD infused foods at this time since they believe more research needs to be done. A hearing is expected to take place in May regarding these regulations.

How much CBD oil should you take and how often?

Most experts say it’s difficult to truly give a dosage. Each body and brain is different when it comes to chemical balances, sizes, and needs. As always, when it comes to taking a new substance to help your body, speak with your doctor or physician if you have any questions.

Grief Happens in the Brain: Healing After Loss

The human condition is complicated and sometimes painful. In times of loss, in particular, it is especially hard to cope and work one’s way through the stages of what we know as grief. In technical terms, grief is “keen mental suffering or distress over affliction or loss; sharp sorrow; painful regret.”

In essence, grief is your brain trying to recover from the shock and disorientation that comes with loss and extreme change; in other words, your brain is trying to look out for you. Your body begins to experience deep biological responses to the painful circumstances, physically, psychologically, and emotionally. Just as chemicals and hormones are released in times of joy and excitement, so are chemicals and hormones released and bodily systems shifted in times of sorrow.

These responses begin in the brain.

Emotional Pain in the Brain

When the brain is going through grief, it experiences increased activity in the regions responsible for processing physical pain and emotions: the insula, anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, posterior cingulate cortex, and prefrontal cortex. In the case of prolonged grief, pain actually accompanies the brain’s reward-process centers, meaning it reinforces (in a sense) the yearning for the lost loved one, almost creating an “addiction.” This is seen when grief persists and even disrupts everyday life.

The effects of grief can also be seen in increased cortisol levels, a hormone mainly released in times of stress–a major part of the grief response as a whole. As a result of excessive cortisol, the prefrontal cortex, which regulates emotions and memories, appears to shrink. This typically affects one’s ability to concentrate, recall things, and articulate or express feelings. Instead, expressing one’s feelings or desires in times of mourning can actually become difficult or even exhausting. Maintaining a normal level of this hormone is essential to human health, but if it remains high, it can take grief to a more prolonged or serious condition, like depression or anxiety.

That’s why it’s very important to be aware of all of the above as it relates to grief’s impact on the human body and mental state. It’s even more important that we treat ourselves kindly through the grieving process.

Appetite and Exercise in Mourning

While grief has its place in the brain, it also has its place in the body and mind. It all comes down to stress. Stress responses require attention in order to aid in healthy healing. Through the grieving process, make your physical, cognitive, emotional, social, and spiritual healths top priorities.

During the grieving process, it’s common to lose one’s appetite, overeat in pursuit of comfort, or even experience gastrointestinal issues as a result of grief’s major stressors. In this time, it’s very important to help yourself eat healthy foods that will not only comfort you but also keep your energy up, strengthening communication between brain cells.

Accompanied with eating right (occasional pizza and ice cream are acceptable, of course), exercise (even if mild) is a major help in healing from grief. Being active in some way, especially out in nature, can release neurotransmitters such as endorphins, serotonin, dopamine, and more, which are central to mood control and may help you fight feelings of depression. Meanwhile, it also helps relieve other symptoms of grief, such as anxiety, pain, lack of sleep, fatigue, and more. This can come in the form of a brief 10-minute walk, if that’s all a person can manage–any bit of movement helps.

Grief: The Sleep Thief

Sleep disorders may crop up in certain stages of grief. Try to take measures that will make you adequately restful by bedtime. That might mean setting some daytime or bedtime practices for yourself, such as no napping in the late afternoon or evening; developing a bedtime routine, in which you read a book or wind down with a bath; keep your bedroom at the right temperature, not too hot or cold; try to avoid electronic devices right before bed; use low lighting in the evenings; exercise at regular times each day (again, even if it’s a 15-minute stroll); stay away from caffeine late in the day; and try to avoid alcohol, for it may actually make it more difficult to stay asleep and can also destroy brain cells (you really need those).

Social Support As You Grieve

Because we are emotionally exhausted during this time, it’s difficult to express our needs. This is when social interaction and support crucially comes in to play. Having those around you who know you best and love you will encourage your healing and provide you the support you need to take it one step at a time. This doesn’t mean forcing yourself to be social; it means simply having loved ones nearby who understand and are there for you.

Be Patient. Healing Takes Time.

Ultimately, take it easy on yourself. Healing from loss takes time, and that’s all you can do: wait and treat yourself kindly. Remember that those around you should also understand that this grieving process takes time; that way, you don’t feel needy or rushed in the stages, which can lead to unearned guilt. Allow yourself to move through all of this organically.

Never feel selfish for grieving. As mentioned, grief is your body and brain’s natural approach to healing from something incredibly painful; let them do their job for you. Then, do your job in aiding your body and brain to heal by loving yourself, getting the sleep you need, eating as well as you can, and seeking support from others around you to combat any feelings of loneliness or ruminating thoughts.

In the end, you are not alone. Everyone in the world experiences grief at some point; let us all support each other through it and let ourselves grow from it.

This article was originally authored by Leigh Richardson and posted on Prime Women. Read the article here.

Women and Migraines: Causes, Coping and Cures

There’s nothing worse than having to force yourself to function in everyday life while dealing with something as hindering as a migraine or headache. There you are, sitting at your desk, staring at your screen, when you wonder, “hmm…what’s that?” as you notice a strange visual disturbance in your peripheral eyesight. Ah, yes. That’s called “aura,” and you know this because it has often led to a migraine or headache. If this is true for you, you are part of the one-third of affected individuals who experience “aura.”

Headaches and migraines come in all shapes and forms (unfortunately). First, there’s migraine with aura, which is a classic migraine, and second, migraine without aura, which is a common migraine. As for headaches, there are many more types: tension, cluster, allergy or sinus, hormone, caffeine, exertion, hypertension, rebound, and post-traumatic. The most common among these are tension headaches, which stem from physical and emotional stress, lack of rest, stressful work or other factors such as skipping meals, bad posture, and more.

Migraines Give Me the Feels—Not the Good Kind

Migraines and some headaches in general can be described as “intense pulsing or throbbing pain” in an area of the head. Migraines, however, can take it further toward nausea and/or vomiting, or severe sensitivity to light and sound. It can also last between 4 and 72 hours if untreated. While “aura” may sound as if it’s a nice warning of an incoming headache, it’s actually very unpleasant and sometimes frightening. Many describe “aura” as “zigzagging lines,” flashing lights, or seeing stars. It causes temporary blind spots, colored spots, or blurred vision—or even tunnel vision, where you’re only able to see close to the center of the field of view.

Just know, ladies, you’re not alone. It’s happening to other people too—other women.

Women, Stress and Migraines

Let’s go back to stress because it’s is a huge contributor to health issues, and it’s a major women’s health issue. Not only can it lead to depression, anxiety, heart problems, stomach problems, and obesity, but it also increases the likelihood of headaches and migraines. After all, when under stress, muscles tense up, and when this tension lasts a while, it leads to a migraine or headache or body aches.

Stress, however, seems to affect women on a greater scale, as women are more likely than men to report symptoms of stress, including headaches. It should not come as a surprise then that migraine is three times more common in women than in men, affecting 10 percent of people worldwide. Women also get tension headaches more often than men, typically beginning in the teen years and peaking in their 30s. Reasons are thought to relate to genetics, hormone changes in women during menstrual cycle, and are linked to the dilation and constriction of blood vessels in the head.

Other common triggers of a migraine or headache attack include: caffeine withdrawal, drinking alcohol, changes in sleep patterns, loud noises, bright lights, diet changes, odors or perfumes, smoking or exposure to smoke, and others. Some food triggers include all the things we love most (life isn’t fair): chocolate, dairy (especially certain cheeses), foods with tyramine (red wine, aged cheese, smoked meat, and certain beans), fruits (avocado, banana, citrus), peanuts and other nuts and seeds.

Luckily, it’s Not Forever

Research shows that older people tend to have fewer headaches and migraines than younger people. At age 70, only 10 percent of women and 5 percent of men experience them. So while we struggle now, these issues should fade with age. Regardless, always tell your doctor what you’re going through.

Coping and Curing Migraine

A healthy diet, regular exercise, and plenty of sleep are all great ways to avoid a migraine or headache. If you think about it, they’re great ways to manage stress, so naturally they’ll help with headaches. Other healthy habits like meditation, relaxation training, or yoga are also effective approaches. In my field, we do a combination of things to help prevent recurring tension headaches: meditation, relaxation training, EMG biofeedback, and cognitive behavioral therapy. Research also supports that cortical hyperarousal of fast wave activity is found in many people with migraines and supports neurofeedback as an effective treatment for the symptoms of a migraine.

Don’t Underestimate the Power of Headaches or Migraines

Many people misunderstand the struggles behind migraines and headaches. It causes people to miss out on social activities and sometimes even work. Migraines are the 3rd most prevalent illness in the world; it’s serious business. The most we can do for ourselves is to rest and recover, and when others are dealing with the same, go easy on them too. It’s not always preventable, so we must react healthily both emotionally and physically.

This article was originally authored by Leigh Richardson and posted on Prime Women. Read the article here.

What the Heck is Pranayama and How Can it Help You Reduce Stress?

We all know that stress isn’t good for us. But did you know that stress accounts for between 60% and 80% of visits to primary care doctors? The effects of chronic stress are also more than you may realize. Stress has been linked to accelerated biological aging, and increased chronic inflammation and oxidative stress, two processes that cause cellular and genetic damage. Scientists refer to chronic, low-grade inflammation in the body as “inflammaging.” Inflammaging has been associated with conditions like diabetes, heart disease, stress, depression, and a weakened immune system.

Two biomarkers in our blood that can be used to measure the level of chronic inflammation and stress in our body are cortisol and brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). High levels of cortisol is an indicator of high stress.  Brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), is a naturally occurring protein in the body that regulates our brain’s plasticity and promotes brain development. People who have depression, anxiety, or Alzheimer’s disease have been found to have lower levels of BDNF.

Several recent studies suggest that pranayama (yoga breathing techniques), meditation and deep relaxation can slow the harmful physical effects of stress and inflammaging.

One published study found that 12 weeks of yoga slowed cellular aging. The program consisted of 90 minutes of yoga that included physical postures, breathing, and meditation five days a week over 12 weeks. The results found lower levels of inflammation and significantly decreased levels of cortisol in participants of the study. It also found higher levels of BDNF after the yoga program, suggesting that yoga could have potential protective effects for the brain as well.

Another recent study found that a three-month yoga retreat reduced inflammation and stress in the body. The yoga retreat incorporated physical postures, controlled breathing practices, and seated meditations. Participants did two hours of sitting meditation, one to two hours of moving practice, and one hour of chanting daily. Levels of protective anti-inflammatory markers increased after the retreat, while harmful pro-inflammatory markers decreased. Researchers also found that BDNF levels tripled. Participants felt less depression, less anxiety, and had fewer physical symptoms.

Not only do these studies suggest that yoga could slow down the harmful effects of chronic stress at both the psychological and physical levels,  it also indicates the benefits of a yoga practice that goes beyond yoga poses and incorporates yoga breathing techniques, meditation or deep relaxation.

Here’s a simple calming yoga breathing technique that can lower your stress levels. You can practice it for as little as one or two minutes at work or home.

Sit in a comfortable seated position, perhaps with your back supported by a wall.

Close your eyes, reminding yourself not to judge anything you’re doing.

Take a few slow breaths in and out.

Rest your left hand on your left knee.

Fold your ring finger and little fingers toward the palm on your right hand.

Place the index and middle fingers of your right hand in the middle of your forehead, between your eyebrows. You can also curl your index and middle finger toward your palm and rest them on your forehead if that feels more stable.

Exhale slowly through your nose, allowing your lungs to empty completely.

Close your right nostril with your thumb.

Inhale gently and slowly through your left nostril for 5 counts.

Press and close your left nostril with your ring and little fingers. Hold for 2 counts.

Lift your thumb to release your right nostril, and exhale slowly through your right nostril for 5 counts. Stay empty for 2 counts.

Inhale gently and slowly through your right nostril for 5 counts.

Press and close your right nostril with your thumb. Hold for 2 counts.

Release your left nostril, and exhale through your left nostril for 5 counts. Stay empty for 2 counts.

Start another cycle by inhaling through your left nostril. Continue to this pattern for 10 cycles. After you exhale from one nostril, remember to breathe in from that same nostril before switching.

It is a proven fact, breathing techniques are valuable to slow the harmful effects of stress and inflammation.  Try it for a week and see